Indigo Summary Class 12th English

Introduction

In this story, Louis describes Gandhi’s struggle for the poor peasants of Champaran who were the sharecroppers with the British planters. They led a miserable life and were forced to grow indigo according to an agreement. They suffered a great injustice due to the landlord system in Bihar. Gandhi waged a war for about a year against their atrocities and brought justice to the poor peasants.

Characters

  • Raj Kumar Shukla: A sharecropper
  • Charles Freer Andrews: A follower of Gandhi
  • Kasturba: Wife of Gandhi
  • Devdas: youngest son of Gandhi

Summary

This story describes Gandhi’s struggle for the poor peasants of Champaran. In those days most of arable land in the Champaran district was divided into large estate owned by Englishmen and worked by Indian tenants. The chief commercial crop was Indigo. The landlords compelled all tenants to plant 15% of their Indigo and surrender the entire Indigo harvest as rent. This was done by long term contract.

The British didn’t need the Indigo crop any more when Germany had developed synthetic Indigo. Just to release the peasants from the 15% agreement they demanded compensation. Some illiterate peasants agreed but the others refused. One of the sharecroppers named Raj Kumar Shukla met Gandhi in this regard and compelled him to visit Champaran because of the long term injustice of landlords. Then the two of them boarded a train for the city of Patna in Bihar. From there Shukla led him to the house of a lawyer named Rajendra Prasad. Mahatma Gandhi’s humble and simple attire made the servants mistook him as another poor peasant. He surveyed before taking any vital step in order to get those peasants justice. It was the time when British government punished those who in any condition gave shelter to national leaders or protesters.

Gandhi’s arrival and the nature of his mission spread like a wildfire. Many lawyers and peasant groups came in large numbers to support him. The lawyers accepted the fact that their charges were high and for a poor peasant it will be irksome. Gandhi rebuked them for collecting big fee from the sharecroppers. He stressed on counseling as this would give the peasants enough confidence to fight their fear. He managed to get justice after a yearlong battle for the peasants. He also made arrangements for the education, health, and hygiene for the families of the poor peasants. He gave them the lesson of self-reliance

Gist of the lesson:

  • Raj Kumar Shukla- A poor sharecropper from Champaran wishing to meet Gandhiji.
  • Raj Kumar Shukla – illiterate but resolute, hence followed Gandhiji to Lucknow, Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna, Muzzafarpur and then Camparan.
  • Servants at Rajendra Prasad’s residence thought Gandhiji to be an untouchable.
  • Gandhiji considered as an untouchable because of simple living style and wearing, due to the company of Raj Kumar Shukla.
  • Decided to go to Muzzafarpur first to get detailed information about Champaran sharecropper.
  • Sent telegram to J B Kriplani & stayed in Prof Malkani’s home –a government servant.
  • Indians afraid of showing sympathy to the supporters of home rule.
  • The news of Gandhiji’s arrival spread –sharecroppers gathered in large number to meet their champion.
  • Gandhiji chided the Muzzafarpur lawyer for taking high fee.
  • Champaran district was divided into estate owned by English people, Indians only tenant farmers. · Landlords compelled tenants to plant 15% of their land with indigo and surrender their entire harvest as rent. 87
  • In the meantime Germany had developed synthetic indigo –British landlords freed the Indian farmers from the 15% arrangement but asked them to pay compensation.
  • Many signed, some resisted engaged lawyers, and landlords hired thugs.
  • Gandhiji reached Champaran –visited the secretary of the British landlord association to get the facts but denied as he was an outsider

. · Gandhiji went to the British Official Commissioner who asked him to leave Tirhut , Gandhiji disobeyed, went to Motihari the capital of Champaran where a vast multitude greeted him, continued his investigations.

  • Visited maltreated villagers, stopped by the police superintendent but disobeyed the order

. · Motihari black with peasants spontaneous demonstrations, Gandhiji released without bail Civil Disobedience triumphed.

  • Gandhiji agreed to 25% refund by the landowners, it symbolised the surrender of the prestige

. · Gandhiji worked hard towards social economic reforms, elevated their distress aided by his wife, Mahadev Desai, Narhari Parikh.

  • Gandhiji taught a lesson of self reliance by not seeking help of an English man Mr. Andrews..
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